Biomass Gasifiers
The Gasifier unit is essentially a chemical reactor, where several thermo-chemical processes such as pyrolysis, combustion, and reduction take place.

Most biomass materials like Wood, Charcoal, and Rice Husk etc can be converted into a gaseous fuel known as producer gas, which comprises carbon monoxide, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrogen. This gas has a lower calorific value (1000–1200 kcal/nm3) compared to natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas, but can be burnt directly with high efficiency and good degree of control without emitting smoke. The producer gas flame temperature can be as high as 1100 oC. Each kilogram of air-dry biomass (10% moisture content) yields about 2.5 nm3 of producer gas. In energy terms, the conversion efficiency of the gasification process is in the range of 80%–90%.

In this type, air is introduced into downward flowing packed bed or solid fuels and gas is drawn off at the bottom. A lower overall efficiency and difficulties in handling higher moisture is the limitations in downdraft gas producers. The time (5-10 minutes) needed to ignite and bring plant to working temperature with good gas quality is shorter than updraft gas producer. This gasifier is suitable for internal combustion engines after appropriate cleaning.

These gasifiers are best suited for applications where clean fuel gas is required and where temperature control is critical. These gasifiers can be used in applications requiring moderate temperatures up to 600 oC. Typical applications where the Down Draft Gasifiers have been successfully used are:

» Continuous Baking ovens (Bread, Biscuits, Paint)
» Batch type baking oven - rotary oven for bread Dryers & Curing - tea, coffee, mosquito coil, paper drying
» Boilers
» Thermic fluid heaters
» Annealing furnaces
» Direct fired rotary kilns
» Internal combustion Engines

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